Bubbles are gas-filled cavities within the liquid with variable properties depending on their size.
Ordinary bubbles are not stable for long periods of time, rising and bursting on the surface, but bubbles in micron-size shrink and disappear in the solvent. However, Nanobubbles are stable for a significant amount of time.
The total surface area of a certain volume of gas is in inverse proportion to the forming bubble diameter.
The stability of nanobubbles, together with their high surface area per volume, endows them with important and useful applications.
Possible applications of nanobubbles
BEVERAGE AND FOOD
CARBONATION: C02 is an essential ingredient of carbonated beverages It enhances the flavour and body of the product and the effect of effervescence characterizes the refreshing taste of the beverage. The C02 content also influences beer foam structure and its stability. Therefore, consistent and accurate C02 is one of the main quality factors in the production of beer and soft drinks.
NITROGENATION: When added to beer, nitrogen creates a creamy and fine foam head with small bubble size; it improves the foam stability and softens the beer on the palate. While traditionally nitrogenation was applied in ales and stouts, the same process is nowadays successfully used for the classical lagers treating. Nitrogen increases beer foam stability of lagers up to 30 seconds. Due to its low solubility, nitrogen consumption is very low. Consistent and accurate nitrogenation will determine the appearance and quality of the final beverage.
AERATION/OXYCENATiON: Brewing yeast needs oxygen to multiply, While insufficient aeration results in reduced yeast reproduction, over-dosing may cause the formation of undesired substances and wort foaming. Therefore, controlled wort aeration is required for a consistent fermentation rate and constant product quality.
Oxygen nanobubble contraction and collapse will generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which with existing ozone can form a powerful sterilizer even more effective than chlorine. The short lifespan of the active oxygen makes it as a harmless by-product of nanobubble collapse; as the result sterilization with nanobubbles can be considered as a safe and effective technique.
Oxygenating hydroponic waters with nanobubbles significantly improves the available oxygen to the plants and has been shown to improve nutrient uptake and promote growth by up to 30%. Nanobubbles can also prevent nitrates from accumulating within the tissues of the plant and helps maintain a healthy physiological balance boosting the plants’ natural resistance to disease. Adding ozone also proven to be highly effective at suppressing pathogenic bacteria and fungal infections in the plants.
Aeration is used in water- and wastewater treatment processes to deliver oxygen to microorganisms responsible for the biological oxidation of carbonaceous material and ammonia. Nanobubble aeration is a new technology designed to naturally control algae by exceeding the oxygenation capabilities of traditional aeration systems. With smaller, nanometer-size bubbles, the gas-liquid contact surface area is greatly increased per unit gas volume, increasing the contact time of oxygen with bacteria in a bioreactor, whilst also creating a healthier environment in the reactor. Aeration is used in water- and wastewater treatment processes to deliver oxygen to microorganisms responsible for the biological oxidation of carbonaceous material and ammonia. Nanobubble aeration is a new technology designed to naturally control algae by exceeding the oxygenation capabilities of traditional aeration systems. With smaller, nanometer-size bubbles, the gas-liquid contact surface area is greatly increased per unit gas volume, increasing the contact time of oxygen with bacteria in a bioreactor, whilst also creating a healthier environment in the reactor.
Nanobubble empowered water used in cooling towers has an enhanced vaporization potential due to an increase in surface area of gas/water contact which will improve the efficiency of water-cooling towers. The presence of ozone nanobubble on the cooling system will add a significant anti-microbial action which reduces the formation of any biofilm inside cooling towers.
Using nanobubbles in aquaculture farming will enhance the level of dissolved oxygen in the water which will cause an increase in the growth rate of fish and crustacean by about 30%. On the other hand, the sterilization potential of nanobubbles can also lower the fatality rates by lowering the bacterial infections and water-borne diseases, this reduces or eliminates the use of the antibiotic drug in the farms.